Iodine Deficiency Disorders (IDD) is a disease caused by environmental iodine deficiency leading to reduced iodine intake. Globally 1.8 billion and 541.3 million people in South East Asia Region are at risk of IDD due to deficient iodine intake.IDD commences from intrauterine life extending to childhood and adult life. Pregnant and lactating women and children in first Thousand Days are especially vulnerable to debilitating effect of IDD.IDD causes irreversible brain damage leading to psychomotor impairment and learning disabilities.
The average Intelligence Quotient (IQ) points of children living in severely iodine deficient areas is almost 13.5 IQ points less than those of children living in iodine sufficient areas. Even mild iodine deficiency during pregnancy may cause psychomotor impairment. The spectrum of IDD include goiter, cretinism, hypothyroidism, brain damage, abortion, still birth, mental retardation, psychomotor defects and hearing and speech impairment. Consumption of adequately iodized salt by all for all times to come is the only solution for sustainable elimination of IDD.
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